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Population - Учебно-методический комплекс по курсу «диалог культур республики башкортостан и страны изучаемого языка» Специальность


^ Population 1. Read the text carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct but there are 7 mistakes. Find them and correct. There are 4 million and 110 thousands people in this republic _____ (2,8 percent of the Russian Federation population). The ______ Republic takes the 7th place in terms population ______ among Regions and Republics of Russia, including ______ Moscow and Saint Petersburg. Bashkortostan is an area ______ of high density of population: there are 28,6 persons ______ one square km. 64,8 percent is the part of urban ______ population and 35,2 percent - county people. There ______ are 47,3 percent men and 52,7 percent of women ______ among the whole number of population. Bashkortostan ______ is an international republic. More then 70 nationalities ______ inhabit Bashkortostan: Bashkirs, Russian, Tatars, ______ Chewashes, Maris, Ukrainians, Germans and others. ______ The original inhabitants are Bashkirs. The most ______ widespread religions are Islam, Russian Orthodox, ______ Baptist, Roman Catholic and others. Bashkir and ______ Russian is the international communication languages. ______

Практич. занятие 3. Салават Юлаев – славный сын башкирского народа.

1. Биография С.Юлаева.

2. Музей С.Юлаева.

3. Образ С.Юлаева в живописи, литературе, скульптуре.


Виды практических заданий
^ Salavat Yulayev: A Biography
3. Read the text and choose a heading for each paragraph of the text from A-E. There is one extra heading which you don’t need to use. Put your answers into the table

2004 marked Salavat Yulayev's 250th birth anniversary.  The freedom-loving spirit was the key feature of his character that determined the essence of his nature and made him the leader and champion of his people. What do we know about the life of this personality?


1.

Salavat was born in 1754, between March and October (the surviving records fail to give a more accurate date), to the family of Yulai Aznalin, elder of Shaitan-Kudeiskaya volost of the Siberian Route.  When questioned, Salavat stated that he had been born in the village of Tikeyevo, Ufimski uyezd, and resided in the village of Yulayevo. Historians assert that Salavat's father Yulai Aznalin was not a rich man.  He used to fight guberniya officials who forced the Bashkirs to sell their lands so that plants and mills could be built there. His father's personality, whose gallantry as a Bashkir cavalryman had been awarded with a combat decoration and who staunchly fought against the plunder of the Bashkirs' lands, influenced Salavat greatly.  Salavat Yulayev was fluent in Russian and Turkic and was thus able to communicate with his multinational rebel force.


2.


O
3.
n November 11, 1773, as part of the Sterlitamak Bashkir-Misher punitive corps, Salavat voluntarily switched sides and joined forces with the rebels.  Between that day and his arrest on November 25, 1774, in other words for 1 year and 15 days, he was in the centre of the events of the Peasants' War that shook the foundations of the Russian Empire's monarchic power.


 He participated in 28 battles, 11 of which he led independently, the remaining having been fought as part of the troops led by Yemelyan Pugachov. One of the research papers by the Bashkir scholar, Doctor of Sciences (History) Nazir Kulbakhtin, is devoted to Salavat Yulayev's talent as a military commander.  The book states, however, that the rebel force led by Salavat Yulayev did not emerge triumphant in all the 11 battles against the punitive troops. There were defeats, too. But, unlike other leaders of the Peasants' War, Salavat never allowed his corps to be fully defeated. Every time he managed to preserve the core of his troops and to replenish them for further battles. Salavat was only 19 when he appeared before Pugachov at Berdskaya Fortress.  The military talents and bravery of the young Bashkir warrior won the confidence and love of "the muzhik tsar", and he became the youngest colonel in the rebels' army. Salavat Yulayev started to guide revolts of the peasants residing near Krasnoufimsk and Kungur.  His activities included disseminating Pugachov's manifestos among the population, procuring money, equipment, food and men for the rebel force.  The tsarist bodies of power were disbanded in the areas occupied by the rebel troops and the Cossack order was installed. In late March and early April of 1774, the tsarist troops managed to inflict heavy blows on the insurgent army near Orenburg, Ufa, Menzelinsk, Kungur, Krasnoufimsk and Chelyabinsk. Military activities of stage two of the Peasants' War were largely confined to the territory of Bashkiria.  Though the rebels had been crushed and Pugachov arrested, the national hero Salavat Yulayev continued resisting the government troops.

H
4.
e rejected General Potemkin's demand to surrender and the mutiny in Bashkortostan was quelled only after the arrival here of the famous General Aleksander Suvorov. After the capture of Salavat Yulayev on November 24, 1774, the rebellion in Bashkortostan started to subside. The investigation was long and conducted in Ufa, Kazan, Moscow, Orenburg and again in Ufa. On July 15, 1775, Salavat Yulayev and his father Yulai Aznalin were sentenced to whipping (175 lashes!) and having their nostrils cut. Besides, the letters denoting "villain", "mutineer" and "traitor" were burnt in their cheeks and foreheads. On November 29, 1775, Salavat Yulayev and his father were banished to the Fortress of Rogervik on the Baltic Sea. He was only 21 at that time and he would spend the remaining 24 years and 9 months until his death in imprisonment.  For nearly a quarter of a century of hard labour the son did his best to support his father.  This tragic period of his life made Salavat immortal. Salavat was 46 when his earthly existence came to an end.  The popular memory, however, preserves him as a 20-year-old youth - a poet and a soldier, an unwavering titan who carried mountains of hopes on his shoulders and kept the freedom-loving spirit of his Motherland in his heart.

A) Salavat Yulayev is he in the centre of the events of the Peasants' War.

B) Salavat Yulayev’s childhood.

C) Salavat Yulayev’s imprisonment

D) Salavat Yulayev’s participation in battles

E) Salavat Yulayev’s brevity and strength

1

2

3

4














Практич. занятие 4. Башкирский народный эпос. Урал Батыр.

1. Башкирский народный эпос.

2. Эпос «Урал Батыр».


Виды практических заданий

Ural-batur
^ 1. Read and learn the meaning of the following word. Epic, spiritual, heritage, sasans, dwarfs, mythology, folklore, ancestor, accomplish, stratification
2. Read the proper names

The Bashkirs, Ural-batur, Akbuthat, Uthak and Tuthak, Kara-yurgha, Akhak-kola, The Lame Greyish Horse, Kungyr-bugha. Babsak and Kusak, Alpamysha and Barsynhylyu, Kuthykurpas and Mayanhylyu, Itheukai and Morathym, Shulgan, Ural

Read and translate the text

Bashkir epic poetry

Bashkir epic poetry forms a significant part of national spiritual culture. The creators and holders of the epic heritage were improvisatory singers, or sasans, who were endowed with brilliant poetic skills, exclusively retentive memory and wisdom. Only the XX century saw the recording of large epic poems with original plot-structures once spread among the Bashkirs. Among them are «Ural-batur», «Akbuthat», «Uthak and Tuthak - Descendants of the Balabashnaks (Minor Pechenegs)», legends about animals - «Kara-yurgha» («The Black Ambler»), «Akhak-kola» («The Lame Greyish Horse»), «Kungyr-bugha» («The Brown Bull»), and the historical epic «Babsak and Kusak». At the same time a noticeable part in sasans' repertory was formed by plots common to the folklore of other Turkic peoples («Alpamysha and Barsynhylyu»; «Kuthykurpas and Mayanhylyu»; «Itheukai and Morathym» etc).

Each of the above-mentioned pieces of folklore is important. But it is «Ural-batur» - a heroic kubair based on mythology - that, like a high mountain peak, dwarfs these other ones by all its philosophical and humanistic power. It represents a wide spectrum of ancient views and ideas that have their roots in the depths of the primitive communal system.

The epic about Ural-batur has preserved distinct echoes of archaic twin myths based on the ancient peoples' dualistic beliefs. Although the two epic characters, Shulgan and Ural, are not in point of fact twin brothers their actions are in some way parallel to those performed by twins in myths and epic tales of other peoples of the world.

Sometimes in folklore main heroes are considered as either twins or elder and younger brothers within one and the same tale. It should be noted that alongside «Ural-batur» there are other pieces of Bashkir folklore that reflect some traces of archaic myths about twins.

World folklore knows several types of epics associated with twins: 1) brothers as antagonists (or allies, in more recent times), 2) a brother and sister joined in an incestuous marriage, 3) twins as androgynes (bisexual creatures) and 4) twins whose birth is supposed to be of an animal parent, or twins related in kinship with animals. Twins are often shown as ancestors or culture heroes. The motifs of the Bashkir folklore are connected with myths and legends of the first type.

The events of «Ural-batur» take place in an unknown land where the heroes and characters of superhuman power accomplish their great or base deeds. According to the nature of mythology, fantasy is regarded as a specific reality of the epic world.

The poem has preserved the elements of the most ancient myths about the days of creation, macrocosmic model in its trichotomous stratification - the sky, the earth and the underworld with the world's mountain as an axis, and the role of culture heroes in creating the universe.


Практич. занятие 5. Известные люди РБ.

  1. Ахмет Заки Валиди.

  2. Батырша Алиев.

  3. Жизнь и творчество М.Карима.

  4. Зайнаб Биишева.

  5. Рами Гарипов.


Виды практических заданий.

Read and translate the text

Mustai Karim

Bashkort people's famous poet, writer and dramatist Mustai Karim (Karimov Mustafa Saffitch) was born on the 20th of October, 1919 in the village of Klash of Shishma district of the Bashkort ASSR. He came from the middle peasant's family. Mustai was a modest and diligent boy from his early childhood.

After finishing seven years of school in his village, in 1935 he went to study in Ufa. He studied at the Ufa pedagogic faculty for workers in 1935-1937 years, and in 1937 he became a student of the philological faculty of the Bashkort State Pedagogical Institute. He graduated from the Institute in 1941.

From the first days of the Great Patriotic War Mustai Karim was called up to the Soviet Army. After finishing short military courses he served as a signaller. In the August of the 1942 he was badly wounded and he was at the hospital for a long time. After recovering, he worked as a military journalist at the front newspapers "For the Honour of the Motherland" and "The Soviet soldier".

He took part in the battles for the lib­eration of Ukraine, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania. He met Victory Day in Vienna on the 9th of May, 1945. He was awarded the Orders of the Patriotic war, the Red Star and many medals for his heroic deed at the fronts of the GPW against the fascist Germany.

After the GPW he returned to Ufa and began his active literary work and at the same time he did social work. He was president of the Union of the Bashkort writers in 1951 - 1962, in 1962 he was elected a secretary of the Union of the writers of Russia. He was the deputy of the 19-27th congresses of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. He was the deputy of BASSR and RSFSR for several times.

Mustai Karim began to write in 1935-1936. His first poems were published in the newspapers "A Young Builder" and "Leninist". In his first books "The Detachment" (started) (joint work with Vali Khanov), and "Spring Voices" he wrote as a lyric poet. Heroism and tragedy are described in his collections of the verses "My Horse" (1943), "Poems" (1945). "December's Song" (1942), "Ulmasbai" (1942-1944), "Black Water" (1961). In his poems written dur­ing the GPW Mustai Karim described the humanist mission of the Soviet Army. In his collection of the verses "Returning" Mustai Karim wrote about the Soviet Peoples' peaceful construction after the Victory over the German fascism. Mustai Karim in his poem "Europe-Asia" written after the GPW (1954), described the Soviet peoples' peaceful labour and fight for peace all over the world.

Different nations' life and their friend­ship were widely described in his works "Vietnam's articles (notes), "Bolgar's notebook", "From the Kabardino-Balkar note-book", written in 1956-1964.

Mustai Karim is well-known as one of the popular playwrights, prose-writers and publicists.

His plays "The Wedding is going on", "Aigul's Motherland (Country)", "Blue Shawl", "Salawat", "Don't throw the Fire, Prometus!" and many others are well-known to the spectators. His plays became a golden fund of the Bashkort dramatic composition. His novels are "Joy of our Home", "Taganak" (Three Trivet), "Forgiveness", "Long, Long Childhood" (his autobiographic novel). His novels were honoured with the State Prize of the USSR (in 1972), Lenin Prize (1982), with the State Prize of the RSFSR, Republican Prize of BASSR after Salawat Yulayev (1967).

He was awarded the two Lenins orders (1967, 1979), "Labour Red Star" (1955, 1962), "The Order of Friendship" (1984), "The Sign of the Honour" (1949) and other orders.

His works were translated into many languages and are read by millions of people.

Mustai Karim, the people's poet of Bashkortostan, goes on writing his works which became popular among the read­ers of not only Bashkortostan but Russia.

3. Put the appropriate words and expressions from the text into the sentences

  1. Mustai was _____________a boy from his early childhood.

  2. He _____________the Orders of the Patriotic war, the Red Star and many medals for his heroic deed at the fronts of the GPW against the fascist Germany.

  3. He was _______of the Union of the Bashkort writers in 1951 - 1962, in 1962 he was elected ________________of the Union of the writers of Russia.

  4. Mustai Karim is well-known as one of the popular_____________, prose-writers and publicists.

  5. Mustai Karim, ______________of Bashkortostan, goes on writing his works which became popular among the read­ers of not only Bashkortostan but Russia.

Mustaj Karim

Mustaj Karim, eigentlich Mustafa Safitsch Karimow ist ein berьhmter baschkirischer Schriftsteller, Dramatiker und Kinderbuchautor. Seine Gedichte sind Zeugnisse seiner Heimatliebe und der Vцlkerfreundschaft und zugleich ein wesentlicher Beitrag zur Weiterentwicklung der baschkirischen Volkspoesie.

Er wurde am 20. Oktober 1919 im Dorf Kljaschewo im Tschischminskij Rajon geboren. Er beendete siebenjдhrige Schule in seinem Dorf. Im Jahre 1941 beendete er Fakultдt der baschkirischen Sprache und der Literatur in der pдdagogischen Hochschule Namens Timirjasew. Im Jahre 1963 bekam er Ehrentitel des Volksdichters. Im Jahre 1967 bekam er Premie Namens Salawat Julaew. Im Jahre 1980 bekam er internationale Premie Namens Andersen fьr die Kinderbьcher, fьr die

Romanbьcher zuerkennte man ihm die Staatspremie der UdSSR Namens Stanislawski.

Im Jahre 1970 bekam er den hohen Rang des Helden der sozialistischen Arbeit. M. Karim starb 2005.


Практич. занятие 6. Театры и музеи РБ.

1. Башкирская национальная живопись и ее место в мировой культуре.

2. Башкирский театр и его место в мировой культуре.

3. Башкирский кинематограф и его место в мировой культуре.

4. Башкирская литература и поэзия и их место в мировой культуре.

5. Башкирская опера и балет и их место в мировой культуре.


Виды практических заданий

Make a list of 20 most famous Bashkort athlets of the past and present. Discuss this list with your groupmates. Find out who knows most about Bashkort sportsmen.

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